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Family Genus Specific epithet Specific authority Infraspecific epithet Infraspecific authority
2C mean1(pg) 2C mean1(mbp) 2C range1 pg Life cycle
Other specifications (cultivar, population, strain, etc.) Original reference Journal Year
Telomere type Telomere type based in genome sequenced hybrid
Number of 5S signals Range of 5S signals Position2 of 5S signals (5S P)
Number of 35S3 signals Range of 35S signals Position2 of 35S signals (35S P) Arrangement
Total number of rDNA signals (5S+35S) (Total) Number of chromosomes with both 5S and 35S signals (SC)
Number of chromosomes with both 5S and 35S in the same arm (SA) Number of chromosomes with co-localized 5S and 35S signals (Coloc.)

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1 1C genome size and n chromosome number for bryophytes.
2 Position refers to that of most chromosomes in the species and can be either interstitial (i), (peri-)centromeric (c) and (sub-)terminal or satellite (t).
3 35S=45S=18S-5.8S-26S rDNA

Protocols, reagents and checklists for rDNA fluorescent in situ hybridisation in plants

Here you will find:
We wish to thank Dr. Sonja-Siljak Yakovlev (Université Paris Sud – CNRS) and Dr. Jiri Siroky for sharing their knowledge, experience and advice on these techniques, as well as on the assessment and the preparation of these documents.


Garcia S, Panero JL, Siroky J & Kovarik A. 2010. Repeated reunions and splits feature the highly dynamic evolution of 5S and 35S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) in the Asteraceae family. BMC Plant Biol 10:176.
Geber G & Schweizer D. 1988. Cytochemical heterochromatin differentiation in Sinapis alba (Cruciferae) using a simple air-drying technique for producing chromosome spreads. Plant Syst Evol 158: 97-106.
Heslop-Harrison LS, Schwarzacher T, Anamthawat-Jonsson K. et al. 1991. In situ hybridization with automated chromosome denaturation. Techniques 3: 109-116.
Siljak-Yakovlev S, Pustahija F, Vicic V & Robin O. Molecular cytogenetics (FISH and fluorochrome banding): resolving species relationships & genome organization. In: Methods in Molecular Biology, Series Ed.: Walker, John M. Springer-Verlag.
Gerlach WL & Bedbrook JR. 1979. Cloning and characterization of ribosomal RNA genes from wheat and barley. Nucleic Acids Res. 7:1869-85.
Gerlach WL & Dyer TA. 1980. Sequence organization of the repeating units in the nucleus of wheat which contains 5S rRNA genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 8:4851-65.

Interesting links to FISH protocols, reagents, tips…


Reference books or book chapters on Fluorescent in situ Hybridisation

Schwarzacher T, Heslop-Harrison P. 2000. Practical in situ hybridization. BIOS Scientific Publishers Limited. UK.

Darbi IA, Hewitson TD (ed.). 2006. In situ hybridization protocols (Methods in Molecular Biology). Humana Press Inc. USA.

Zhang P, Friebe B. 2009. FISH on plant chromosomes. In: Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) – application guide. Pp 365-394. Liehr T (ed). Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Singh RJ. 2003. Plant Cytogenetics. Second Edition. CRC Press USA.

PDF Leitch AR, Schwarzacher T, Jackson D, Leitch IJ. 1994. In situ hybridization: a practical guide. BIOS Scientific Publishers Ltd.